- Estrogen refers to a group of similar hormones produced in the body.
- The main three are estrone, estradiol, and estriol.
- Estradiol is produced mainly by the ovaries and, of the three; it is most stimulating to the breast tissue.
- Estrone is most prevalent after menopause, and is produced by conversion of adrenal DHEA in fat cells. It is also formed from the conversion from estradiol.
- Estriol is produced in large quantities in pregnancy and is also the main circulating estrogen in young women according to research by Dr. Jonathan Wright.
- Estriol is made from estrone and estradiol and is less stimulating.
- Estrogens are helpful in relieving hot flashes as well as helping the urinary tract, breasts, skin, blood vessels, and keeping the uterus toned and flexible.
- Estrogens may slow the development of osteoporosis by slowing down the rate of bone loss.
- Progesterone is primarily produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary just prior to and after ovulation.
- It is also produced in large quantities by the placenta during pregnancy, while produced all the time by the adrenal glands.
- Progesterone may enhance estrogen activity while also moderating symptoms of estrogen excess such as water retention, fat accumulation, uterine bleeding, and mood swings.
- Progesterone helps promote thyroid activity, and may also stimulate cells (osteoblasts) necessary for bone building.
- Testosterone in men is mainly produced by the testicles, and in smaller quantities by the adrenal glands.
- In women, testosterone is produced in both the ovaries and the adrenal glands.
- In both men and women, testosterone may be helpful for increasing sex drive, energy, and muscle strength.
- DHEA is made by the adrenal glands. Once DHEA enters the cells, it may be converted to testosterone, and estrogens.
- DHEA enhances the immune system to help protect against infection, injury, and illness.
- DHEA may also be helpful in enhancing energy and muscle strength.
- DHEA may be beneficial in treating autoimmune disorders such as Crohn’s, lupus, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Pregnenolone is produced in the adrenal glands.
- It is also produced in the brain, liver, ovaries, testicles, and myelin sheath.
- Other hormones such as DHEA, cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, and estrogens are made from pregnenolone.
- Pregnenolone may enhance mood, energy, and memory
- Pregnenolone may be helpful for individuals dealing with autoimmune disorders, chronic fatigue, and depression.
- Thyroid refers to a group of hormones produced in the body.
- The two main thyroid hormones are thyroxine or T4, and triiodothyronine or T3.
- T4 is produced by the thyroid gland. It is the inactive thyroid hormone in the body.
- T3 is produced by the thyroid gland and in the brain and liver via the conversion of T4. It is the active thyroid hormone in the body.
- Thyroid hormones are involved in regulating the body’s metabolism, increasing energy, and regulating the menstrual cycle.
- Hydrocortisone is produced by the adrenal glands.
- Hydrocortisone helps boost the immune system to assist in recovery from infections, illness, or stress.
- Hydrocortisone may be beneficial in treating autoimmune disorders such as Crohn’s, multiple sclerosis, lupus, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis
- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
- Postpartum Depression
- Menopause and Perimenopause
- Female Sexual Dysfunction
- Testosterone Deficiency
- Chronic Fatigue Fibromyalgia
- Andropause (Male Menopause)
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
PMS affects close to 70% of all women in their reproductive years. It is characterized by symptoms that usually occur during the 7 to 10 days before menses, the most common being:
- Water retention
- Breast tenderness
- Emotional instability
There are many theories on what causes PMS including things like poor nutrition, low levels of progesterone and/or the estrogen hormones, and thyroid disease. Ideally, a healthcare practitioner will conduct a complete physical examination and full medical history to eliminate other conditions such as endometriosis or ovarian cysts. Keeping track of a patient’s menstrual symptoms and how they correlate with their menstrual cycle helps to differentiate PMS from other medical conditions.
PMS treatment options often require multiple solutions, including Natural Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), dietary changes, and other lifestyle modifications.
Infertility is the inability to conceive a child and could be due to many different factors. One cause of infertility is luteal phase defect. This is inadequate progesterone production during the luteal phase of the cycle. Progesterone prepares the uterine wall for the implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the egg throughout a full-term pregnancy. Research indicates that natural progesterone can potentially help raise the body’s progesterone level and help women to conceive and carry a full-term pregnancy. When progesterone is low, there may be inadequate support for the fertilized egg which can result in a miscarriage.
Postpartum depression (PPD) can often occur after the birth of a child. PPD is characterized by frequent teariness or more extreme feelings of being unable to cope, rage, or the mother’s fear that she may hurt herself or her baby. These feelings can occur anytime within the first year following childbirth. PPD has different levels of severity ranging from the “baby blues” to psychosis. Having the “baby blues” is characterized as a short period of anxiety and weepiness due to the shift in hormones immediately after birth. In the most severe case of PPD psychosis, mothers can experience extreme rage, severe depression, and delusions.
The treatment for these women may include a complete assessment of the individual’s needs, including specific lab evaluations, psychiatric assessment, education, therapy, support, and medications, including natural hormones, as needed.
Menopause and Perimenopause
Menopause is a gradual, natural life transition from the reproductive years to the post-reproductive years. Some women pass through this stage with few symptoms, while others may find the symptoms debilitating. Symptoms may begin during perimenopause, the time prior to or around menopause, which is officially diagnosed only after the final menstrual period. The most common symptoms include:
- Hot flashes
- Night sweats
- Loss of libido
- Vaginal infections and dryness
- Dry skin
- Mental fogginess
- Mood changes
As women age, the ovaries begin to decrease production of estrogens and progesterone, the menstrual cycles become more irregular. Eventually, ovulation and menstruation ceases and production of estrogens and progesterone declines dramatically. This process can last anywhere from 2 to 10 years.
During this transition, treatment may vary greatly, depending on the severity and duration of symptoms. Options typically include combinations of herbal and non-herbal remedies, dietary changes, exercise, yoga, meditation, and hormone replacement therapy (Natural or conventional hormone supplements).
Menopause can also be artificially induced if one or both ovaries is impaired or removed (oophorectomy), or as a result of chemotherapy or radiation to the pelvic area.
Female Sexual Dysfunction
At some point in their lives, many women experience a loss of interest or pleasure in sexual activity. Female sexual dysfunction occurs if these problems recur or persist to the extent that they cause distress.
There are many causes of sexual dysfunction and most are readily treatable. A thorough pelvic exam will reveal if there are physical changes that may be affecting sexual pleasure. Hormonal shifts, like those occurring after pregnancy and during menopause, can also lead to sexual dysfunction. While the role of estrogens is well known, imbalances in thyroid hormone, progesterone and testosterone can also affect sexual function.
Other causes include health conditions such as sleep apnea, diabetes, and depression. Also, many common medications dampen sexual response, including antidepressants and blood pressure drugs. Symptoms may include:
- Little or no desire for sex
- Inability to become or remain aroused
- Failure to achieve orgasm despite significant arousal
- Painful sex
Treatments typically target the known or suspected cause of the sexual dysfunction, and include natural hormone therapy, medication changes, lifestyle modifications, sexual therapy, relaxation techniques and pelvic exercises.
Even though a woman’s “normal” amount of testosterone is only a minute fraction of that of a man’s, it is still vital for both sexes. Aside from its obvious roles in sexuality, testosterone is also essential for maintaining strong muscles and bones, and is important to cardiovascular health.
As we age, testosterone levels diminish, which can be particularly problematic for women because it is far less abundant to begin with. Common signs of a potential testosterone deficiency include:
- Decreased libido
- Vaginal dryness
- Lack of energy, vitality and motivation
- Loss of muscle tone, coordination and balance
- Leaky bladder
- Weight gain
- Depression or anxiety
Women typically begin to experience these symptoms after menopause, as their hormone levels decline. However, pre-menopausal women can also be deficient in testosterone due to childbirth, endometriosis, or substance abuse. Even some medications, such as birth control pills, chemotherapy, and antidepressants, can interfere with the body’s ability to make use of the testosterone available.
Testosterone replacement therapy requires careful testing and monitoring because it typically involves other hormones as well. Natural testosterone supplements are available as custom-compounded therapies in capsules, tablets, lozenges, injections, creams, gels and other forms.
Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the skeletal system in which bone density decreases and bone structure deteriorates. Eventually, bones become so brittle and porous that they can fracture from even mild stress. There are no tests to measure bone quality, so osteoporosis is diagnosed by measuring bone mineral density, usually through x-rays of the hip or spine.
While some illnesses and medications (especially corticosteroids) can cause bone loss, most people develop osteoporosis as a result of the aging process. In women, bone loss accelerates with menopause due to decreased production of estrogens and other hormones that contribute to bone health.
In early stages of osteoporosis, there are no symptoms. As bones become weaker, symptoms may begin to appear, including:
- Gradual loss of height, accompanied by a stooped posture
- Arthritis-like pain in the bones and joints
- Fractures, especially of the wrists, hips and spine
- Back pain, which can be severe if it results from fractured or collapsed vertebrae
- Treatments that can slow down or even reverse bone loss include weight-bearing exercise, supplements, natural hormone replacement therapy and medications that inhibit bone breakdown.
As its name implies, chronic fatigue syndrome is a condition characterized by persistent, debilitating fatigue that doesn’t improve with rest, and may worsen with physical or mental exertion. Women are two to four times more likely to develop this condition, which can persist for years.
Symptoms typically start after an infection, viral illness, or stressful event. However, the syndrome can begin gradually without any obvious trigger.
Diagnosis is made only after all other causes of severe fatigue are ruled out, and if four or more of the following symptoms persist or recur for at least six months in a row:
- Sore throat
- Painful, mildly enlarged lymph nodes in the neck or armpits
- Unexplained muscle soreness
- Pain that moves from one joint to another without any swelling or redness
- Headache of a new type, pattern or severity
- Memory loss or trouble concentrating
- Sleep disturbances
- Extreme exhaustion lasting 24 hours after normal exercise
Although there is no cure for chronic fatigue syndrome, treatments that may help relieve symptoms includes exercise, massage, diet and lifestyle changes, counseling to address depression, antidepressants, pain relievers and natural hormone therapies.
Endometriosis is a condition where the endometrial tissue normally found inside the uterus is found outside the uterus. These cells then implant themselves onto other organs in the pelvic area, where they grow and cause pain, infertility, and other problems. There are various treatments for endometriosis. Depending on the severity of the condition, where the endometriosis is located, and the age of the individual, treatment may include surgery, medications and natural hormone replacement therapy, as needed.
Andropause, more commonly referred to as “Male Menopause,” is the gradual, age-related decline of hormonal function in men. The most dominant of the male hormones (or androgens) is testosterone, which plays a key role in many aspects of overall health. The androgens also include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and other hormones.
With the decline in testosterone and other androgens, men typically begin to notice changes around the age of 40, including but not limited to:
- Decline in sexual function
- Decrease in muscle strength and stamina
- Increase in body fat, especially abdominal fat
- Loss of hair on arms and legs
- Lack of initiative or drive
- Increased moodiness or inability to concentrate
Treatment of andropausal symptoms often includes different combinations of herbal and non-herbal remedies, an exercise regimen, dietary changes, and/or Natural Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT).
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid is under active. There are various symptoms of low thyroid function with the most common being:
- Dry skin
- Weight gain
- Cold hands and feet
- Low basal temperature
The treatment may include HRT, nutritional supplementation, and changes in diet and lifestyle.
Hypoadrenalism is low production of hormones from the adrenal glands or an imbalance among these hormones. The steroidal hormones primarily produced by the adrenal glands are cortisol (hydrocortisone) and DHEA. Some causes of hypoadrenalism could be immune system damage to the adrenal gland, or an insufficient amount of stimulation by pituitary hormones. Some of the more common symptoms associated with hypoadrenalism include:
- Nervousness and irritability
- Salt and sweet cravings
- Inability to concentrate
A health practitioner may take a complete history, thorough physical examination, and lab tests to rule out other medical imbalances or conditions. Treatment for hypoadrenalism may include diet, nutrition, education, and HRT.
Contact our Compounding Specialists for more information on how we can help you!